Astigmatism is caused by abnormalities in the cornea and the lens.
If you have astigmatism, the front of your eye is not a perfectly round shape like a football. Instead, it is more oval like a rugby ball. This gives the front of your eye an asymmetric curvature, so light scatters as it goes into your eye. This produces a jagged and slightly distorted image. Learn more about astigmatism here.
Treatments for astigmatism
A cataract is the clouding of your natural eye lens.
The natural lens is just behind the pupil of your eye, and it helps to make a clear image on your retina. Usually, this lens is crystal clear.
As a cataract develops, the lens becomes increasingly milky, causing a greenish cloudiness. It may also cause a glare in bright lights and change in the focus of the eyes, needing a frequent replacement of your glasses. Eventually, the sight does not improve with a change of glasses. Find more information on cataracts here.
Treatments for cataract
Glaucoma is a condition that causes the pressure inside the eye to be too high. If left untreated, this excessive pressure can damage the nerve that carries the vision to the brain; in severe cases, this can lead to blindness. Learn more about glaucoma here.
Treatments for glaucoma
Hyperopia / Long-sightedness
Long-sighted – also known as hypermetropia or hyperopia – is when you cannot see things up close. It’s exactly the opposite problem to short-sightedness. Learn more about long-sightedness here.
Treatments for long-sightedness
Keratoconus is an eye condition that affects the shape of your eye. Rather than your eye growing in a sphere shape, it grows in a cone-shape causing your cornea to progressively thin and bulge.
Keratoconus can cause significant visual impairment, or it can go unnoticed, and your vision remains normal. Learn more about keratoconus here.
Treatments for keratoconus
- Corneal cross-linking
- Eye glasses
The usual cause of having a lazy eye is when the eye is very out of focus as a child. This leads to the brain ignoring the image from that eye, and the brain doesn’t upload the software necessary to analyse the vision. Learn more about lazy eye here.
The treatment of amblyopia or lazy eye is to patch the good eye in order to force the lazy eye to work harder.
Treatment is only effective in children under the age of seven.
Myopia / Short-sightedness
If you are short-sighted (also known as myopic) you can see things that are up close but can struggle to see things further away. This is because light entering the eye is focused in front of the retina when it should focus on the retina. It focuses too soon. Learn more about short-sightedness here.
Treatments for short-sightedness
Usually, between the ages of about 45 and 55, the autofocus mechanism in our eye gradually fails. When this happens, we have to increasingly rely on glasses to read computer screens or printed matter. Learn more about presbyopia here.
Treatments for presbyopia
- Reading glasses
- Refractive lens exchange