Dry Eyes2021-05-19T10:45:07+00:00

What you need to know about dry eyes


Dry eyes explained

Dry eye refers to any condition of the eye in which you feel that the eyes are dry.

Many conditions can cause symptoms of dryness of the eye. However, actual dry eye is rare and occurs when tear production is deficient.

Your eyes tear film consists of three layers, each of which is equally important but can be affected differently in different conditions.

The innermost layer is a mucinous layer that is produced by special cells in the conjunctiva. The function of the mucin is to act as a wetting agent so that the middle layer of the tear film can evenly moisten the eye surface.

This middle layer of watery tears are produced by the lacrimal gland which is found up under the eyelid. It is this gland that produces tears when we are emotional.

The third and outermost layer of the tear film is an oily secretion from specialised skin glands which are found in a neat row along the edge of the lid just behind the eyelashes. These glands are called meibomian glands. One of the functions of this oil is to coat the surface of the watery layer of the eye, to slow its evaporation.

Meibomian glands can be subject to chronic infection leading to styes.

The tear film contains two antibiotics which the body produces naturally.

Dysfunction of any of the three layers of the tear film can lead to symptoms of dryness. The following can impair the functioning of the tears:

  • Contact lenses or eye drops
  • Some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis can attack the lacrimal glands
  • Eye makeup can compromise the quality of any of the layers and cause a sensation of dryness
  • A tiny bug called Demodex can live in the roots of the lashes and cause irritation

To diagnose dry eye, we will need to perform a comprehensive eye exam and take a detailed history of your general health.

We will also measure the volume and quality of your tears using a Schirmer test.

Other tests may be carried out to determine the surface condition of your eyes and how long it takes for your tears to evaporate.

Correct diagnosis of the exact cause of the symptoms is essential for successful treatment. If the mucin layer is defective, then that issue should be addressed. Sometimes it may be necessary to graft new cells into your conjunctiva to produce fresh mucin, but this is only rarely needed.

If the watery layer is defective, then replacement drops are prescribed as a substitute.

If the problem is in the oil of the Meibomian glands, then you may require a program of meticulous hygiene and antibiotics over a long period.

My-iClinic is financially accessible to anyone who wants the best available treatment


How it works

There are 3 easy steps to gaining freedom from contacts and glasses
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Book the first step so we can examine your eyes and explain your treatment options.



Remember how great it feels to have happy and healthy eyes again.

Here’s what Londoners say after eye treatment

We are proud to hear we make a meaningful difference to your life

Mr Bolger suggested having cataract surgery on both eyes on the same day and whilst I had concerns, I decided to go ahead. The day after I was able to remove the eye pads and I had perfect vision. I have told many people that it was the best thing I have ever spent my money on. I have needed spectacles or contact lenses since I was 9 years old and now have 20/20 vision with no assistance from spectacles. I would highly recommend the My-iClinic.

Mrs Penelope Carrozza

Double cataract removal in September 2018. The total experience from initial consultation to operation was most efficient. The result so far has been exactly as described in the brochure, I've never seen so well. I had glasses from just over 1 year old till now, (80+), what a difference!

Michael Turvey

Just discharged after having monovision cataract surgery in both eyes I am delighted with the outcome. I can see both near and far and have been able to dispense with my contact lenses and glasses. I have been well looked after from my first contact. Mr Bolger was very professional and reassuring and I felt at all times that I was in good hands. I cannot fault the whole experience including the charges, which having researched various alternatives, proved to be very reasonable.

Anne Collins
james w

I had high confidence in the team working at My-iClinic due to their attentive and thorough end-to-end service, from the reception desk to the operation theatre. I have recommended the practice already to multiple friends, family members and colleagues. (And my eyesight is better than I even hoped for!)

Ames Ward

Absolutely fantastic. I was very nervous having my laser treatment for narrow angle glaucoma. The Consultant was wonderful, caring and very understanding. She talked me through the procedure and was extremely patient. Definitely recommend My-iClinic.



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Articles and videos to help you understand your eyes better

Learn more about the conditions we treat
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Links to more information about eye conditions…

Educate yourself further by reading the links below

The NHS has provided an excellent overview of glaucoma, including causes, tests, and treatments. Click here for more information.

The National Eye Institute provides a walkthrough of a cataract condition with examples of what your vision may look like, as well as treatment options. Click here for more information.

The National Eye Institute provides a great amount of information regarding macular degeneration. Click here for more information.

For the NHS guide to long-sightedness, click here.

For the NHS guide to short-sightedness, click here.

About the experts

Meet the My-iClinic founders, Mr John Bolger and Ms Bola Odufuwa. Two consultant eye surgeons who made it their life goal to make your life better.


Bola Odufuwa

Consultant Ophthalmologist
Clinic Director

Bola Odufuwa is a consultant ophthalmologist at The Royal Free Hospital and My-iClinic. Her specialities include cataract, glaucoma, paediatric, and laser refractive surgery. Bola has had extensive training at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, where she gained expertise in the management of various eye conditions.

Bola Odufuwa’s special interests include optimal refractive outcomes following cataract surgery, non-penetrating glaucoma surgery, and assessment eyesight in children with special needs: particularly dyslexia and autism.


Mr John Bolger

Consultant Ophthalmologist
Clinic Director

John Bolger is a Consultant Ophthalmologist and Clinic Director at My-iClinic. His specialities include ophthalmology, laser refractive surgery (SMILE, Presbyond, LASIK, PRK, PTK), refractive lens exchange (RLE), cataract surgery, glaucoma treatment and macular degeneration.

Over the course of his career, John Bolger has carried out over 35,000 cataract operations, 20 of which were for eye surgeons. He has also taught over 1500 young ophthalmologists worldwide as they begin their surgical careers.

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