All the eye conditions we treat

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Eye conditions A-Z

Astigmatism is a condition whereby the front of the eye is not ideally round like a football. Instead, it is more oval like a rugby ball giving the front of the eye an asymmetric curvature. This shape defect causes light to focus asymmetrically as it enters the eye, creating blurred vision. Some people have astigmatism as well as long or short-sightedness. Fortunately, short-sighted and long-sighted don’t often happen together. However, some people, as they age, get one short-sighted eye and one long-sighted eye.

Laser eye surgery is an effective treatment for astigmatism if you want to be independent of glasses or contact lenses. 

We can treat cataract patients who have astigmatism, with an implant.

Blepharitis is a condition that affects your lid margins. Symptoms include redness and crusting around the base of your eyelashes. Significant symptoms are rare.

Causes include:

  • Chronic low-grade overgrowth of the bacteria that naturally live on and in our skin is the most typical cause.
  • Small bugs called Dermodex residing in the roots of the eyelashes also cause blepharitis.
  • Blepharitis is also commonly found in patients with other skin conditions such as acne or rosacea.

To diagnose blepharitis, we take swabs of the eyelid and analyse the chemical makeup of your tear film.


We can treat blepharitis with an intensive lid hygiene programme and an antibiotic ointment.

Just behind the pupil of your eye is the lens. This lens focuses the light entering the pupils to make a clear image in the retina. The retina changes the image into a nerve impulse so that your brain can “see” it. Usually, the lens of the eye is crystal clear so that light passes through it easily. However, as you age, cloudiness can develop in the lens and start to block the light passing through. This is when your vision becomes blurred and clouded. We call this cataract or lens opacity.

The only way to treat a cataract is with surgery.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the outermost coat of your eye. It covers all of the white part and the back of the eyelids.

Conjunctivitis is a common, typically self-limiting, inflammation and has many causes.

Bacteria are a very common cause of conjunctivitis. They are usually quickly eliminated by the two antibiotics which occur naturally in your tear film.

Viruses are also common causes of conjunctivitis, but it takes longer for the body’s immune system to remove them.

Pollen, chemicals and other irritants can cause conjunctivitis. Allergens can cause allergic conjunctivitis.

If you have conjunctivitis, having the correct diagnosis is essential.

Once the cause is known, the treatment can commence. Examination and swabs of the tears are usually helpful. Special imaging of the tear film can show how well it is functioning, and infrared imaging of the oily Meibomian gland can also help us to diagnose.


We can successfully treat conjunctivitis with eye drops.

Dry eye refers to any condition of the eye in which you feel that the eyes are dry.

Many conditions can cause symptoms of dryness of the eye. However, actual dry eye is rare and occurs when tear production is deficient.

Your eyes tear film consists of three layers, each of which is equally important but can be affected differently in different conditions.

The innermost layer is a mucinous layer that is produced by special cells in the conjunctiva. The function of the mucin is to act as a wetting agent so that the middle layer of the tear film can evenly moisten the eye surface.

This middle layer of watery tears are produced by the lacrimal gland which is found up under the eyelid. It is this gland that produces tears when we are emotional.

The third and outermost layer of the tear film is an oily secretion from specialised skin glands which are found in a neat row along the edge of the lid just behind the eyelashes. These glands are called meibomian glands. One of the functions of this oil is to coat the surface of the watery layer of the eye, to slow its evaporation.

Meibomian glands can be subject to chronic infection leading to styes.

The tear film contains two antibiotics which the body produces naturally.

Dysfunction of any of the three layers of the tear film can lead to symptoms of dryness. The following can impair the functioning of the tears:

  • Contact lenses or eye drops
  • Some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis can attack the lacrimal glands
  • Eye makeup can compromise the quality of any of the layers and cause a sensation of dryness
  • A tiny bug called Demodex can live in the roots of the lashes and cause irritation


Correct diagnosis of the exact cause of the symptoms is essential for successful treatment.

Depending on the cause, treatment may consist of eyes drops, antibiotics, lifestyle adjustments, or in rare cases, the graft of new cells into the conjunctiva.

People with diabetes are prone to developing eye problems.

Diabetic eye disease is a group of eye problems that can affect people with diabetes. These conditions include:

  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Diabetic macular edema
  • Cataracts
  • Glaucoma

The two main ways that diabetes damages vision is cataracts and retinal damage (retinopathy).


Often there are no early symptoms of diabetic eye disease. However, when symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • Blurry or wavy vision
  • Frequently changing vision
  • Dark patches or vision loss
  • Poor colour vision
  • Flashes and floaters


The first step to treat diabetic eye disease, is to manage your diabetes properly. We can treat more advanced eye problems such as cataracts and retinopathy with one or a combination of medicine, laser treatments and surgery.

Some people describe blurry vision as seeing double, which is rectified by glasses.

However, if you see two distinct images and one image disappears when you cover one of your eyes, a full investigation is warranted as this could be a sign of a neurological problem.


If the cause is neurological, treatment may include one or a combination of the following:

  • Special glasses
  • Eye patching
  • Surgery

Eyelid cysts, chalazion and styes are very common. Some people go through a period where they have repeated bumps on their eyelids. Usually, no intervention is necessary, and eventually, the problem will disappear.

Eyelid cysts, chalazion and styes occur when the oil glands in the lid margin become blocked. Sometimes it is due to an imbalance in the eye or an infection.


Most of these common eye problems disappear on their own within a few months at most. However, we can surgically remove large or troublesome ones.

The treatment for removal of a cyst is to anaesthetise the lid in the area of the cyst. We then drain the cyst, and within a few days, all should be normal.

Almost everyone will experience a floater at some point in their life, although many people never notice them. They are very common among shortsighted people and their incidence increases as we get older.

The vast majority of floaters are harmless bits floating about the jelly at the back of the eye. However, sudden onset of floaters with or without flashing lights can also be the first sign of a detached retina. In this case, an urgent examination is essential.

Also, you may find yourself seeing light spots that move around your vision. This is uncommon but can be a stress-related eye problem.


Floaters can be reduced by laser eye treatment.

Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to the nerve which transmits eyesight signals from the eyeball to the brain. It is commonly associated with high pressures in the eye and comes in two types; open-angle glaucoma (chronic glaucoma) and narrow-angle glaucoma (angle-closure glaucoma).

When people talk of glaucoma, they are usually referring to the open-angle type as this can cause loss of vision. Open-angle glaucoma is described as the silent thief of sight because the loss of vision is painless. Narrow-angle glaucoma can have no symptoms but can progress to open-angle.

In narrow-angle glaucoma, which is much less common, patients complain of seeing halos around lights and a dull eye ache. This may progress to severe eye pain, redness and blurring of vision associated with nausea and vomiting. If left untreated, glaucoma initially results in loss of peripheral vision then tunnel vision and eventually irreversible sight loss.


The treatment for open-angle glaucoma is to lower the eye pressure. We can do this with:

Treatments for narrow-angle glaucoma include:

  • Laser treatment (yag Iaser iridotomy)
  • Eye surgery (clear lens extraction)

Hyperopia, also known as long-sightedness, is when you cannot see things up close.

Treatments for hyperopia include:

Keratoconus is an eye condition that affects the shape of your eye. Rather than your eye growing in a sphere shape, it grows in a cone-shape causing your cornea to progressively thin and bulge. The cornea is responsible for focusing most of the light that comes into our eyes. If there are abnormalities of the cornea, the way we see the world is affected and this can make simple tasks difficult.

The primary treatments to correct the vision impairments caused by keratoconus include:

It is important to note that if you have keratoconus, you cannot undergo laser eye surgery as it makes the condition worse.

Lazy eyes, also known as amblyopia, usually affects just one eye and occurs when your eyes do not develop properly as a child. The eye is often perfectly healthy; however, your brain does not recognise the eyes image and relies heavily on the “good” eye” to see. It is like the brain doesn’t have to correct software to load an image.

Treatment involves putting a patch over the good eye so that your brain is forced to upload the software to see with the lazy eye. 

Treatment is only effective in children under the age of seven.

Macular degeneration affects mostly older people and its incidence increases with age.

About three people per 1000 over the age of 50 will develop macular degeneration.

It’s very rare in young people, and it is usually due to an inherited abnormality.

Macula degeneration exists in two main forms, wet and dry.


We can treat wet macular degeneration with an injection of a special drug into the jelly of the eye. Successful treatment usually preserves vision but often has to be repeated many times.

The dry form has currently no treatment but tends to be less damaging.

Myopia, also known as short-sightedness, is a condition where you can only see sharply close up. It is caused by the eye growing too long. The normal human eye is approx 23.5mm from the front of the cornea to the back of the retina. If the eye grows longer, you become shortsighted. 

For each unit of myopia, there is a 40 fold increase in the risk of blindness later in life.  

Treatments for myopia

  • Laser vision correction: This achieves the best results and quality of life enhancement. 
  • Lens implants: A phakic implant or intraocular contact lens is inserted into the eye with surgery
  • Glasses or contact lenses can help to sharpen the focus of the vision 
  • Atropine eye drops can be used in children to slow the rate of increase of their myopia as they grow.

Presbyopia is the need for reading glasses as we get older.

Usually, between the ages of about 45 and 55, the autofocus mechanism in our eye gradually fails. When this happens, we have to increasingly rely on glasses to read computer screens or printed text.

Historically, the only way to overcome this was to wear reading glasses.

Recent advances in laser and lens implant technology have produced exciting new treatments to free people from the need to use reading glasses.

If you wear contact lenses, you can have them adjusted so that one eye sees far and the other sees near. This is called monovision.

Another option is lens surgery with a multifocal implant replacing the natural lens. 

A third option is PRESBYOND laser vision correction. This treatment is safe and effective and provides the added bonus of correcting long-sightedness, short-sightedness and astigmatism; all at the same time.

A squint is a condition where the two eyes do not look directly at the same thing. It is also called strabismus. It is more common at the extremes of life, affecting the very young and the very old.

In children, a squint is frequently caused by the eyes being out of focus. It can also affect children for no reason at all. Very extremely rarely it can be a sign of more serious disease.


Depending on the cause, the patient may need to wear glasses to control the squint. The glasses may refocus the eye to allow the brain to control it better. Sometimes the glasses may have a prism to control the squint.

My-iClinic is financially accessible to anyone who wants the best available treatment

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What do our Cataract patients say?

We are proud to hear we make a meaningful difference to your life

Mr Bolger suggested having cataract surgery on both eyes on the same day and whilst I had concerns, I decided to go ahead. The day after I was able to remove the eye pads and I had perfect vision. I have told many people that it was the best thing I have ever spent my money on. I have needed spectacles or contact lenses since I was 9 years old and now have 20/20 vision with no assistance from spectacles. I would highly recommend the My-iClinic.

Mrs Penelope Carrozza

Just discharged after having monovision cataract surgery in both eyes I am delighted with the outcome. I can see both near and far and have been able to dispense with my contact lenses and glasses. I have been well looked after from my first contact. Mr Bolger was very professional and reassuring and I felt at all times that I was in good hands. I cannot fault the whole experience including the charges, which having researched various alternatives, proved to be very reasonable.

Anne Collins

My-iClinic was recommended to me by 3 different people that had surgery there so I was not nervous. From booking the first appointment, to the surgery for cataract on both eyes, the aftercare instructions and post operation consultation, it was smooth sailing all the way. I was warmly received and was comfortable because I felt I was in safe hands because of the professionalism of the staff, the environment which was very clean with very nice soothing decor, and so many equipments. The whole procedure was explained thoroughly by the team of nurses and technicians and also by the surgeon, Ms Odufuwa. The procedure was painless and quick and my eyesight improved tremendously (like 100%!!!) and I don't need glasses anymore!!! I must thank Ms Odufuwa and her team for the great and efficient service received and I would not hesitate to recommend her and the clinic to my family, friends and associates.

Olukemi Thomas

I can fully recommend My-iClinic as they are professional and extremely friendly. I was very nervous about having my cataract surgery and extremely anxious. However, upon arrival I was made to feel completely at ease and Mr Bolger put all my concerns to rest. I would highly recommend him to anyone. I would like to thank the whole team who saw me through this especially Matt and Pawel. Thank you everyone at my-iClinic!

Maureen Smart

I came to My-iClinic to have my cataract operation. The receptionist was professional and friendly as were the staff who performed the tests necessary for my consultant appointment. The booklet I was given to read was so informative I had very few more questions to ask. On the big day I was reassuringly prepared for the op which has been extremely successful. Thank you

Louise Edwards

Mr Bolger (My-Clinic) was recommended to me by a friend of mine, who is an eye surgeon, to be the best hand in the country. My experience came true to expectation. I am extremely happy with the result of my cataract operation by Mr Bolger and the excellent post-op care. I am also grateful to Mr Bolger’s surgical team and staff at My-Clinic.

Nancy Ghazi

I was delighted with the results of my surgery for cataract performed by Ms Bola Odufuwa. She explained every detail of the procedure to reassure me at every step as I was apprehensive at first. After surgery, I was amazed to see how bright and clear everything was immediately. Her precise instructions on how to care for my eyes post operatively ensured that I had a rapid and successful recovery. I cannot thank her enough and feel totally rejuvenated. Ms Odufuwa had been recommended to me by a friend who had been successfully treated. I too would highly recommend her to anyone.

Kofo Anjori

I could not be happier with my “new eyes” (cataract surgery). I was very nervous and the team at the centre all went out of their way to put me at my ease. I found my consultation with Mr Bolger reassuring as he was able to it the risks into perspective. I am pleased I trusted his advice to have both eyes operated on at the same time. I can now see how unbalanced I would have been for weeks if I had had one eye operated on at a time.

Julie Graham

Excellent service as on previous visits. Just had cataract implant surgery by Mr. Bolger. All gone very smoothly. (Clinic took great, sympathetic care of my 97 year old mother earlier too.) All staff at the clinic are totally professional but friendly and accessible. You can call them if you have concerns without feeling you are a nuisance. Care is taken over hygiene and Covid security and the clinic is well equipped for running many different eye tests. I always recommend them to my friends as I have only had good experiences there.

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Relieve your symptoms with treatment for blepharitis

If you’ve been struggling with severe, repeated bouts of blepharitis, then we can help. Our expert ophthalmologists will advise on the blepharitis causes and treatment that are most aligned with your unique case.

To alleviate your irritation, either give us a call or book a consultation with our lovely team today.

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About Our London Eye Clinic Experts

Meet the My-iClinic founders, Mr John Bolger and Ms Bola Odufuwa. Two consultant eye surgeons who made it their life goal to make your life better.

Image of Bola Odufuwa

Bola Odufuwa-Bolger

Consultant Ophthalmologist
Clinic Director

Bola Odufuwa is a consultant ophthalmologist at The Royal Free Hospital and My-iClinic. Her specialities include cataract, glaucoma, paediatric, and laser refractive surgery. Bola has had extensive training at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, where she gained expertise in the management of various eye conditions.

Bola Odufuwa’s special interests include optimal refractive outcomes following cataract surgery, non-penetrating glaucoma surgery, and assessment eyesight in children with special needs: particularly dyslexia and autism.

Image of John Bolger

Mr John Bolger

Consultant Ophthalmologist
Clinic Director

John Bolger is a Consultant Ophthalmologist and Clinic Director at My-iClinic. His specialities include ophthalmology, laser refractive surgery (SMILE, Presbyond, LASIK, PRK, PTK), refractive lens exchange (RLE), cataract surgery, glaucoma treatment and macular degeneration.

Over the course of his career, John Bolger has carried out over 35,000 cataract operations, 20 of which were for eye surgeons. He has also taught over 1500 young ophthalmologists worldwide as they begin their surgical careers.